Unfortunately, parasites can live and feed not only in the internal organs of a person, but also penetrate under the skin. This causes a number of diseases that have their own specifics. It is important to diagnose the cause of unpleasant symptoms in time and begin treatment before parasitic worms cause great damage to the body. Most of the parasites that live under the skin can only become infected in tropical latitudes: swimming in a stagnant pond, drinking unboiled water, or becoming a victim of a blood-sucking insect. But some individuals are "settled" in their body without leaving home.
Varieties of diseases and parasites
Medicine distinguishes a number of diseases, the diagnosis of which indicates subcutaneous worms in humans.
- Cysticercosis. Its causative agents are the larvae of pork tapeworms. Most often they enter the body with unboiled water or food. These worms are localized in the internal organs, eyes, brain, muscles and under the skin (they are observed on the shoulders, palms, chest). Such parasites can live in a person for years, thickenings and swellings form under the epidermis, which thicken over time. Diagnosis is slightly facilitated by urticaria, which is constantly manifested by rashes on the skin.
- Schistosomiasis. This disease is provoked by helminths that live in the waters of Africa and Asia. Worms affect the genitourinary system and skin. The main symptoms are itching, rashes, dermatitis, profuse sweating at night, kidney damage, liver enlargement.
- Filariasis. These are thread-like nematodes living in South America, Asia and Africa. They are spread by blood-sucking insects. The disease develops for a very long time (up to seven years), but provokes a number of pathologies of the skin: ulcers, eczema, nodes, papules, rashes. If a person does not pay attention to constant headaches, drowsiness, sleep disturbances and general weakness, complications may develop in the form of arthrosis, glaucoma, cataracts.
- Scabies. Scabies mite half a century ago was quite common. It settles in the deep layers of the epithelium, feeding on it and laying eggs there. The female parasite lives for about two months, but manages to lay several dozen eggs under the skin. The tick breaks through passages in the epithelium, and this is what provokes severe itching. Places of localization - folds on the body, sides of the thighs, mammary glands, armpits, genitals and hair. Human skin is covered with blistering rashes, pimples, boils and other complications occur.
- Dirofillaria. These are parasites that can exist not only subcutaneously, but also affect the eyeball. Females of these worms reach a length of up to 30 cm, and males - up to 10. The carriers of worms of this species are dogs and cats, and biting them, mosquitoes carry microfilariae larvae to humans. In this case, the development of an adult in the body may take years. According to statistics, most of the removal of the eyeballs falls precisely on the diagnosis of dirofillaria, after a total deterioration in vision, up to blindness. Seals form under the skin, which itch, turn red, and can reach the size of an egg. It is in them that the adult worm is located.
- Dracunculosis (guinea worm). These are round worms, reaching a length of up to 120 centimeters. More common in tropical climates. In addition to humans, cats and dogs are also affected. You can become infected with them by drinking unboiled water, swimming in polluted reservoirs. Once in the body in the form of a larva, the worm reaches adulthood only after a year of living in a person. Most often, the legs suffer from this disease: they are the ones who are prone to such complications as the development of contractures, inflammation of the joints. In addition, the presence of the guinea worm inside a person is fraught with gangrene and blood poisoning.
- Ankylostomiasis. Worms-causative agents live in places of tropical and subtropical climate. Hookworms are introduced under the skin of a person through the slightest damage to the skin (usually the legs), and there they remain to parasitize. The disease manifests itself with symptoms such as severe itching, sometimes there is a cough, anemia, there are signs of damage to internal organs.
- Demodicosis. This is one of the most common dermatological ailments. It occurs due to the penetration of the subcutaneous tick-causative agent. This is a non-helminthic disease, but the pest also lives in the layers of the epidermis (in the meibomian ducts and sebaceous glands). Symptoms of parasites: abundant, pronounced acne on the face, cheeks, forehead and around the eyes, sometimes there is a loss of eyelashes.
Diagnosis, symptoms and signs
If subcutaneous worms and parasites are suspected, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible, because some individuals live in people for several years before "pleasing" with symptoms. Therefore, at the time of detection, parasites already have time to cause damage to health.
Since the clinical picture of worms and other subcutaneous inhabitants is rather ambiguous and many symptoms appear individually, there is usually no unambiguous list of signs. There are a number of indicators that may indicate subcutaneous parasites: constant itching, skin irritation, seals of various sizes, rash, small blisters on the surface of the epithelium, indirectly - sleep disturbances, fatigue. To find out the etiology of such manifestations and exclude helminthic invasion, you need to visit a number of specialists, among them:
- infectious disease specialist;
- psychologist (if previous specialists did not find pathologies in their profile).
Diagnosis takes place in several ways, depending on the symptoms:
- blood test for antigens;
- examination of the epidermis sample;
- taking a secret;
It is these indicators that can detect the presence or absence of parasites on the skin of a person.
Traditional pest control methods
Treatment directly depends on the type of parasitic worm. In each individual case, an appropriate therapy is selected, taking into account the age and stage of neglect of the problem. Most medicines are quite toxic not only for the worm, but also for the human body.
- getting rid of dracunculiasis is possible only through a surgical operation;
- scabies parasite is effectively expelled by hydrochloric acid and sulfuric soap;
- with schistosomiasis, an antimony drug will help;
- the body is relieved of demodicosis by a cosmetic line for facial skin care (special soap for washing, cream).
Along with traditional drug treatment, the patient needs to tighten hygiene procedures, carefully monitor the cleanliness of the body, premises, clothing, and avoid unnecessary contact with people. In some cases, you will need diet food, skin care cosmetics.
Prevention of subcutaneous worms
With helminthic invasions, you need to be extremely careful, because it is quite simple to settle parasites in the body, and it may take years for a correct diagnosis and cure.
In order to minimize the risk of infection with worms subcutaneously, doctors advise remembering the following rules:
- before traveling to countries with a tropical climate, you need to be vaccinated;
- always follow the rules of hygiene: wash hands after contact with a large number of people, money, after going to the toilet, before eating;
- women should not use someone else's cosmetics, since there is a high risk of bringing parasite larvae (or a tick) onto their skin;
- fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed before use, but it is better to pour over boiling water, subject meat to prolonged thermal effects, boil water for drinking;
- carefully treat any skin damage with antiseptics, especially in the tropics;
- do not swim in dirty and dubious waters.
If the parasites have settled under the skin, this is a reason to contact a dermatologist as soon as possible. He will be able to determine the type of worm and prescribe adequate treatment. In most cases, the patient is waiting for conservative therapy, including taking antihelminthic drugs and other drugs that relieve the symptoms of the disease in humans.