Worm infestation belongs to a common group of diseases among humans and animals. It is caused by the penetration into the body of various worms, of which in our time there are more than three hundred species. Parasites are localized mainly in the intestines and liver, but some species are able to penetrate the lungs, heart, brain and other vital organs, which can lead to very serious consequences. It is important to detect the presence of helminths in the body as early as possible and take measures to eliminate them in order to avoid health problems. After all, this disease can have many consequences, up to death. But it is quite difficult to determine the presence of helminthic invasion in the body, since the symptoms are similar to other diseases and it is difficult to say exactly which infection is attacking the body. It is important to understand what to look for when contacting a parasitologist.
Types of helminths dangerous to humans
Worms that pose a danger to humans are divided into two groups:
- Cavitary - pinworms, roundworms, whipworm, wide tapeworm and other parasites that live in the intestines.
- Tissue - echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis and other types of parasites that can spread to all important internal organs and affect them.
Most often, the following types of helminthic invasions are diagnosed in the human body: enterobiasis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis.
Methods of infection with worms
There are many ways that parasite larvae enter the body, among them the main ones can be distinguished:
- Contact - larvae are transmitted from person to person.
- Through an insect bite.
- Through the soil
- Through the water.
- With dust particles.
- From food that has undergone insufficient heat treatment.
The first manifestations of worms in the body
Once in the human body, worms do not immediately manifest themselves. This is the main problem. The first signs of helminthic invasion may appear only after two weeks. These include:
- increased body temperature;
- skin rashes;
- aching pain in the abdomen;
- loss of appetite;
- the appearance of a headache;
- disruption of the intestines.
If, having felt the first signs, in time to consult a doctor, many problems can be avoided.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the human body
Being in the body, parasites eat most of the nutrients and vitamins, which significantly affects the well-being.
Symptoms of helminthic invasion in adults:
- the presence of allergies;
- the appearance of acne and boils;
- annoying cough;
- reduced immunity;
- depressed and irritable state;
- pain in the joints;
- disorders of the digestive system.
Symptoms of infection with worms of the lungs
Infection of the lungs with helminths can be asymptomatic for several years. After penetration into the human body, parasites actively multiply, when a significant amount is reached, symptoms such as:
- weakness and lack of strength;
- wet cough;
- pain and discomfort in the chest area;
- nausea and vomiting;
- decreased appetite and weight loss.
In places where parasites enter the lungs, adhesions form, and over time, the shape of the lungs changes. Parasites provoke diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and pleurisy. In an advanced case, a fatal outcome is likely.
The main signs of intestinal helminthiasis
Most often, the habitat of worms in the human body is the intestines. The very first symptoms appear when the helminths begin active reproduction:
- lack of strength and fatigue;
- itching in the anus;
- dermatitis and eczema on the skin.
Parasites poison the body with the products of their vital activity, and all this leads to a general state of weakness and apathy.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the stomach
This place is also a favorite for worms, the symptoms are as follows:
- frequent indigestion, constipation can abruptly turn into diarrhea;
- pain in the stomach and navel;
- decreased appetite;
- constant feeling of hunger;
- gnashing of teeth;
Signs of Dirofilaria Infection
This type of parasite occurs in humans due to insect bites. There are two forms of dirofilariasis - ocular and cutaneous:
- The cutaneous form is the most common and may appear from a mosquito bite, a small seal forms in this place and gradually it migrates under the skin, causing discomfort. If you do not seek qualified help in a timely manner, severe redness and pain appear at the site of the lesion.
- In the ocular form, the parasite lives under the skin of the eyelids and there is a possibility of its penetration into the eyeball. Symptoms are redness and swelling, conjunctivitis and a feeling of itching in the affected area, in addition to this, the person constantly feels a foreign body in the eye. All this is accompanied by insomnia, increased nervousness and general weakness.
Symptoms of helminths in the throat
The throat is one of the most sensitive places in the human body. When it becomes inflamed, we immediately feel pain and discomfort, but sometimes you can feel a strong tickling and stirring in the throat, which is often caused by helminths. It is worth noting that parasites cannot live in the throat, since this is not a favorable habitat for them. It happens that parasites that develop in the digestive system grow to such a size that they enter the throat through the esophagus, this is usually accompanied by suffocation and a strong cough.
Symptoms of helminthic invasion of the brain
Brain damage usually occurs through the nasal passages. When entering the brain, helminths infect the cortical center, destroy brain cells and actively multiply. Instead of dead cells, dead tissues remain, leading to inflammatory processes in the brain. If urgent medical care is not provided to the patient, he may die within two weeks.
- severe pain in the head;
Symptoms of helminthic invasion in human blood
Blood is the habitat of several types of helminths, which have a very detrimental effect on the body. Symptoms include:
- bouts of fever;
- pain in the joints;
- numbness of the limbs;
- enlargement of the lymph nodes.
How to recognize helminthic invasion by skin rashes
One of the main manifestations of the presence of helminths is a strong deterioration in the condition of the skin and the appearance of various rashes on it. This is due to the toxic substances released by the parasites. The most characteristic signs are as follows:
- severe itching;
- allergic rhinitis;
- the appearance of papillomas;
- fragility of nails;
- increased hair loss;
- acne and furunculosis.
But you should not attribute all skin manifestations to the presence of worms in the body, the reasons may be different and only a dermatologist, after conducting research, will be able to determine them.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in the form of metabolic disorders
Failures in metabolic processes in the body should also alert. If, with a normal diet, there was a sharp decrease or increase in weight, anemia or hypovitaminosis was detected, one should think about infection with parasites. Rapid weight loss may be due to the fact that the worms absorb all the nutrients consumed by a person. Weight gain can be provoked by toxic substances secreted by helminths, in response to them, the body requires more food in order to remove toxins with it.
Symptoms from the immune system
Since the parasites eat all the nutrients and vitamins that enter the body, there is a strong suppression of the immune system and the person becomes susceptible to all infectious diseases and inflammatory processes of various organs. Chronic diseases are also on the rise.
From the side of the nervous system, helminthic invasion is expressed by the following symptoms:
- increased fatigue;
- memory impairment;
- depressed state;
- decreased activity and performance.
Signs of infection in children
Note! In children, the presence of pinworms and ascaris is most often diagnosed.
Worm infestation in children has the following symptoms:
- poor appetite;
- pale skin of the face;
- dark circles under the eyes;
- poor sleep, grinding teeth in a dream;
- headache, dizziness;
- general state of lethargy and weakness;
- the presence of worms in the child's stool;
- itching in the anus;
- a large amount of saliva in the mouth;
- lethargy and fatigue;
- an increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
- allergic reactions, dermatitis, urticaria;
- inflammatory processes in the genitals;
- bad breath;
- annoying cough;
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent colds.
Advice! If a baby has three or more signs, you should immediately consult a doctor. Often, even a study of feces does not give accurate results, so it will be most effective to undergo a comprehensive examination.
It is important to understand that a small number of adult helminths in the body almost does not give any symptoms of helminthic invasion in adults and children. It is possible to confirm or deny infection only by passing laboratory tests and studies that are prescribed by a parasitologist on an individual basis.
Diagnosis of helminthiasis
Since it is possible to treat the body from parasites only after they are detected, and the symptoms of infection are similar to those of other diseases, a competent diagnosis is important. Her methods include:
- Serological analysis - detection of helminth antibodies in the blood;
- Fecal analysis - helps to identify the presence of larvae and fragments of adults;
- Coprological examination - the study of scrapings, which is taken near the anus;
- Check for dysbacteriosis;
- CT scan;
It is easy to get infected with worms, but it is difficult to treat, especially chronic forms of helminthic invasion. The course of treatment includes antiparasitic drugs, immunomodulators and sorbents. The therapy regimen is prescribed only by a doctor, self-medication can be not only useless, but also dangerous.
Preventive measures against infection with helminths
Prevention of helminthic invasions is extremely important for children and adults, following certain rules, you can significantly reduce the chances of infection with parasites. The presence of helminthic invasion in humans, as a rule, is due to the lack of basic hygiene:
- be sure to wash your hands before any use of food, when returning home from the street, after contact with animals;
- well, preferably using special products, wash fruits and vegetables before eating or scald them with boiling water;
- drink only purified or boiled water;
- try to avoid insect bites;
- fish, meat and other similar products are subjected to thorough heat treatment;
- make sure that the child's nails are cut short;
- periodically wash children's toys using special products;
- be sure to boil the items that the patient used for five minutes;
- twice a year to undergo an examination of a child and an adult for the presence of helminths;
- to wean the child to take hands and other objects in his mouth, especially those that had contact with the soil.
The implementation of these measures is not very difficult. Their observance will be enough to protect yourself and your children from infection with parasites as much as possible. If something was missed and symptoms of helminthic invasion began to appear, treatment should be started immediately to prevent complications.